Geov Parrish - This Day in Radical History


September 01

1666: Great London Fire begins in Pudding Lane.

1807: Aaron Burr acquitted of charges of plotting to set up an empire.

1858: Cavalry, infantry, and artillery defeat Kamiakan's Yakama forces near Spokane River, ending three-year Yakama War.

1907: Birth of Walter Reuther, socialist and leader of United Auto Workers.

1919: Communist Party USA founded.

1923: Earthquake strikes Tokyo and Yokohama, kills 106,000.

1939: Hitler invades Poland, beginning World War II.

1947: Three thousand demonstrate for No More War, Berlin.

1971: The Pittsburgh Pirates, for the fist time in major league baseball history, start a game with nine African American players on the field.

1974: Indigenous resistance shuts down Panguna copper mine at Bougainville. It's still shut.

1983: USSR shoots down Korean Air flight 007 over Sea of Okhotsk, killing 267 civilians. Evidence released years later suggests the US may have been using the civilian flight for intelligence purposes.

1985: To avert Senate's passage of South African sanctions, Pres. Reagan announces more restrained sanctions (11 western nations have already imposed sanctions).

1986: Charles Liteky and George Mizo begin Fast For Life against US support of Nicaraguan contras, Washington D.C.

1987: During a nonviolent protest at Concord Naval Weapons Station, a Navy munitions train runs over blockader Brian Willson. Willson loses both legs but has remained an active and articulate leader in the anti- military movement.

1989: White House staffers decide to purchase some crack cocaine so Pres. Bush can hold the illegal drug in his hands during a national address. But on the first attempt, the drug dealer didn't show up. On the second try, an undercover drug agent's body microphone didn't work. Today, trying for the third time, Bush's team scores the crack, but the camera operator videotaping the deal misses the action as a homeless person assaults him. He could have just asked his son.

1992: Shen Tong, a pro-democracy leader, arrested on return from voluntary exile, China.

1996: Sixteen activists in Stuttgart, Germany are arrested at EUROCOM, the US Armed Forces command HQ for Europe, Africa, and the Middle East (and central NATO command), in a protest of NATO expansion into Eastern Europe.

1997: Kurdish and British activists blockade an arms trade exhibition outside London. 89 arrested.

September 02

1666: "Great Fire" in London rages. Before it was finally extinguished four days later, it destroyed almost 14,000 buildings, leaving 200,000 homeless. Four-fifths of the city is in ashes.

1872: Mikhail Bakunin expelled from Communist International.

1919: Communist Party of America founded.

1921: Mine owners bomb striking West Virginia miners by plane.

1923: The Irish Free State holds its first elections after winning independence from Britain the year before. The newly autonomous nation comprises the majority of the island of Ireland, with the exception of six primarily Protestant counties in the north that join Great Britain as Northern Ireland.

1945: Ho Chi Minh declares Vietnam's independence from France (National Day).

1945: Japan formally surrenders, ending World War II.

1956: Detachment of combat-equipped National Guardsmen dispatched to Clinton, Tenn. after a series of violent demonstrations made it impossible for officials to carry out the token desegregation of Alabama schools below the college level.

1957: Arkansas governor Orval Faubus calls out the National Guard to bar African-American students from entering a Little Rock High School.

1963: Alabama governor George C. Wallace prevents the racial integration of Tuskegee High School in Huntsville, Alabama, by encircling the building with state troopers. Eight days later, President John F. Kennedy federalizes the Alabama National Guard, forcing Wallace to abandon his attempt to block the desegregation of Alabama public schools.

1965: Mao Zedong launches "Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution" in China.

1969: Blacks riot in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, and Hartford, Connecticut.

1981: UN Human Rights Commission rules that Canada's Indian Act violates international human rights.

1984: The Mashantucket Pequot of eastern Connecticut take possession of 650 acres of former reservation land.

1987: Hundreds trash ROTC headquarters at Univ. of Calif.-Berkeley.

1991: Rioting in Britain due to a recession, city and county bankruptcies.

1997: Five Central American states sign declaration of intent to create economic union, Managua, Nicaragua.

September 03

1752: This day never happened--nor the next 10--as England adopts the Gregorian Calendar. People riot, thinking the government stole 11 days of their lives. True, but it was more days than that.

1783: Peace treaty signed with Britain, ending Revolutionary War.

1803: Birth of Prudence Crandall, an abolitionist jailed for enrolling African Americans in her school.

1811: Birth of Utopianist John Humphreys Noyes, Brattlebrook, Vermont.

1813: "Uncle Sam" image used for the first time, in Troy (NY) Post.

1838: Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey, famous African-American abolitionist, escapes from slavery in Baltimore, Maryland, disguised as a sailor. He eventually arrives in New York City, taking the name Douglass, after the hero of Sir Walter Scott's poem "Lady of the Lake."

1859: After closure of the Umpqua Subagency, 690 captive Indians are marched over the Coast Range to a coastal Oregon reservation.

1859: Birth of French socialist leader Jean Jaures.

1860: William Walker, a US citizen who once set himself up as dictator of Nicaragua, invades Honduras with his own private army.

1883: Last spike driven on Northern Pacific in Montana.

1919: The Socialist Party of America, the most successful left party in US history, splits to form the Communist Party of America and many smaller groups.

1928: Three hundred Chicago movie theatre musicians strike against their impending replacement by talking movies.

1939: Britain and France declare war against Germany.

1957: Elizabeth Eckford is blocked from becoming first black student at Little Rock (Ark.) Central High School.

1967: Folk singer Woody Guthrie dies of Huntington's Chorea in New York City. He was 52.

1969: Vietnamese revolutionary leader Nguyen Tat Thanh (aka Ho Chi Minh), 79, dies of natural causes in Hanoi.

1969: Weather Underground protest in Pittsburgh organized and led by women.

1970: Representatives from 27 African nations, the Caribbean nations, four South American countries, Australia, and the US meet in Atlanta, Georgia for the first Congress of African People.

1981: Prisoners revolt in Poland; 150 escape.

1992: Thirty-nine state conference on disarmament approves treaty to ban chemical weapons.

1997: Kurdish Peace Train demonstration broken up by Turkish police in Istanbul.

September 04

1626: First patent in American history, for device to restrain natives, to W. Claiborne, Jamestown, Virginia.

1639: US's first prohibition law, outlawing the drinking of toasts, passed in Massachusetts. The law was repealed in 1645 as unenforceable.

1839: Cherokee Nation West established after "Trail of Tears" forced relocation.

1886: Legendary Apache leader Geronimo surrenders to General Nelson A. Miles at Skeleton Canyon, Arizona, ending the last major US-Indian conflict. Geronimo had led a small band of Apache men, women, and children out of forced internment on the San Carlos reservation, successfully evading thousands of US and Mexican troops, regiments of Indian auxiliaries, and an unknown number of civilians for over 18 months in the wilderness of the Southwest.

1894: Twelve thousand tailors strike in New York.

1908: Birth of Richard Wright, novelist and short-story writer. Among the first American black writers to protest white treatment of blacks, notably in his novel "Native Son" (1940). Natchez, Mississippi.

1918: American troops land at Archangel in North Russia, one year after the Russian Revolution, to "protect US interests."

1949: Right wingers riot at Peekskill, New York to stop Paul Robeson concert.

1957: Little Rock, Arkansas: nine Negro students try to attend Central High; Governor Orval Faubus orders National Guard to prevent them.

1966: National Guard confronts white supremacist mobs in Cicero, Illinois, outside Chicago.

1978: Simultaneous demonstrations against nuclear weapons and power in Red Square, Moscow, and on White House lawn, Washington D.C.

1980: Congress establishes reservation for reinstated Siletz tribes of Oregon.

1982: Ten thousand dance on nuclear reactor site, Gorleben, West Germany.

1982: Three thousand protest against arrival of nuclear-powered ship, Japan.

1995: UN's 4th World Conference on Women convenes in Beijing, China.

1996: Scattered protests around the country greet the latest gratuitous US bombing of Iraq. About 100 gather at the Federal Building in Seattle; in Washington D.C., eight are arrested for dumping buckets of rubble on the White House lawn.

September 05

1863: Bread riots in Mobile, Alabama.

1877: Crazy Horse assassinated at Fort Robinson, Nebraska, at age 33, bayoneted by a US soldier after allegedly resisting confinement in a jail cell.

1882: Thirty thousand workers march to protest working conditions in the first US Labor Day parade, New York City.

1914: Battle of Marne, first major battle of World War I. Ultimately, this battle alone would result in 300,000 dead or wounded.

1917: In 48 coordinated raids across the country, later known as the Palmer Raids, federal agents seize records, destroy equipment and books, and arrest hundreds of IWW (Wobbly) activists (including William D. "Big Bill" Haywood, a leader of the organization) for the crimes of labor organizing and "obstructing" World War I.

1954: Peace Pledge Union organizes demonstration against H-Bomb, Trafalgar Square, London.

1957: Publication of Jack Kerouac's "On the Road," an inspiration for a generation of restless spirits.

1961: Pres. Kennedy orders resumption of nuclear testing, "underground, with no fallout."

1964: "Rebel Girl" Elizabeth Gurley Flynn dies, Moscow, USSR.

1972: Palestinian terrorists seize nine athletes of the Israeli Olympic team, who are then shot dead by police during a rescue attempt. Munich, West Germany.

1975: Lynette Alice "Squeaky" Fromme, a member of Charles Manson's "family," is caught pointing a handgun at Pres. Gerald Ford in Sacramento, California.

1981: Greenham Common Women's Peace Camp established outside Greenham Air Base, Britain, as "Women For Life On Earth."

1991: Dissolution of the Soviet Union as a centralist state.

September 06

1522: One of Ferdinand Magellan's five ships, the Victoria, returns to Spain, thus completing the first successful circumnavigation of the world. Magellan, a Portuguese navigator employed by Spain, set out from Seville three years earlier with 265 men, but only 15 survived the journey. Magellan himself was killed by angry natives in the Philippines, but it was too little, too late.

1839: Unified eastern & western Cherokee, split by the previous winter's deadly Trail of Tears, adopt constitution and establish newly settled Tahlequah, in the Indian territory of Oklahoma, as their capitol.

1860: Jane Addams, suffragist and social and peace activist, born, Chicago. Founder of Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, and Hull House.

1869: Avondale Mine disaster, 110 miners killed, leading to first mine safety law in Pennsylvania.

1901: US President William McKinley shot by professed anarchist Leon Czolgosz, who previously had been repudiated by numerous anarchist groups. Buffalo, New York.

1941: All Jews over age six in German territories ordered to wear a star.

1963: Anti-nuclear march from Glasgow, Scotland, arrives in London, and attempts to present a dummy missile to the British Imperial War Museum. Apparently too many dummies are already in the museum.

1966: Five nights of racial rioting begin in Atlanta. Stokely Carmichael arrested for "inciting riot" along with over 100 others.

1966: Sex reformer, birth-control advocate Margaret Sanger dies.

1966: Star Trek appears on TV for the first time.

1967: In British papers, the U.K. government takes out advertisements explaining its recent enacting of legislation outlawing pirate radio.

1973: Rebellion at Statesville prison, Indiana.

1974: Housing occupations and barricade of San Bailio neighborhood of Rome, Italy, leads to legalized squatting.

1978: House Select Committee on Assassinations opens hearings into the assassinations of John F. Kennedy and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. The committee recessed on Dec. 30 after concluding conspiracies were likely in both cases, but with no further evidence for further prosecutions.

1982: Twenty killed by car bomb in Tehran, Iran.

1988: Flood waters, submerging 3/4 of the country of Bangladesh, begin to recede, after killing at least 1,154 and leaving 25 million homeless.

1988: Seven arrested in protests at uranium processing plant, Fernald, Ohio. The Fernald plant was later revealed to be among the worst polluters in the entire US nuclear industry.

1993: Slovak Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar says gypsies constitute a "socially unadaptable population" with "children, simply, who are a great burden on this society." Persecution against the Roma (gypsies), who emigrated to Europe from India in the 11th Century, has increased markedly in Eastern Europe since the fall of communism. Jozef Pacai, mayor of the Czech city Medzev, has suggested selectively killing gypsies.

September 07

3114 BC: Presumed origin of Mayan "long count" calendar system.

1776: The world's first submarine attack occurs when the submersible craft American Turtle attacks the British flagship Eagle in New York harbor. The American Turtle, was large enough to accommodate one operator, and entirely hand-powered. The wooden submarine attached a time bomb to the hull of the Eagle, and departed unnoticed. An explosion results, but no serious damage occurs as the poorly secured bomb had drifted away from the ship.

1822: Brazil declares independence from Portugal (National Day).

1833: Hannah More dies in Bristol, England. Wrote the two-volume "Strictures on the Modern System of Female Education."

1860: Excursion steamer Lady Elgin and the lumber ship Augusta collided on Lake Michigan, killing nearly 400 persons.

1888: Jesse James' last holdup.

1917: Birth of Jacob Lawrence, Atlantic City, N. J. A leading painter in chronicling African-American history and urban life. Among his most celebrated works will be the historical panels "The Life of Toussaint-Louverture" and "The Life of Harriet Tubman."

1927: Six Marion, N.C. textile workers killed on picket line.

1942: Death of peace activist Edouard de Neulville, France.

1948: Three thousand attend rally in public launch of Peace Council, Melbourne, Australia.

1954: Integration of public schools begins in Washington, D.C. and Baltimore, Md.

1958: First meeting of the New York Daughters of Bilitis, pioneer lesbian organization.

1960: Positive thinker Rev. Norman Vincent Peale warns that any Catholic President would be under "extreme pressure from the hierarchy of his church."

1963: FDA announces that Dr. Steven Durovic's "anti-cancer" drug Krebiozen, administered to over 5,000 patients in 13 years, is really the common amino acid creatine, which has no anti-tumor effects whatsoever.

1968: For the first time, feminist protesters interrupt the Miss America beauty pageant in Atlantic City, N.J.

1977: Workers in Ghaziabad, India burn factory and lynch two finks; solidarity strike of 40,000 follows.

1977: In Wisconsin's first judicial-recall election, outraged Dane County (Madison) citizens vote judge Archie Simonson from office. He called rape a normal male reaction to provocative female attire and modern society's permissive attitude toward sex, which he said is why he sentenced a 15- year-old to just one year of probation for raping a 16-year-old girl. He is replaced by Moria Krueger, the first woman judge elected in Dane County history.

1978: The Who's drummer, Keith Moon, 31, dies in London after overdosing on Hemenephirin, a prescription drug which was supposed to help him with alcohol.

1987: Solidarity Campaign in Britain ship 100 bicycles to Nicaraguan teachers and health care workers.

1988: New York Daily News reports boxer Mike Tyson is seeing a psychiatrist. Iron Mike explained, "I just needed someone to talk to, someone who'd really listen, someone who'd let me chew their ear off."

1990: Ploughshares Two activists jailed fifteen months for disabling F-111 bomber, Oxford, Britain.

1990: RCMP moves in on First Nations encampment in southern Alberta, ending a month-long native attempt to protect sacred land by diverting the Old Man River around a partially completed dam.

1992: Troops kill nonviolent demonstrators, Ciskei "homeland," South Africa.

1996: Two women are arrested for trespass at the Norfolk (Virginia) Naval Base after walking into the base with a banner reading "Love Your Enemies."

1996: Rapper Tupac Shakur and Marion "Suge" Knight are shot in Las Vegas following a Mike Tyson fight. Shakur dies days later.

September 08

1760: The Capitulation of Montreal. British give Indians right to remain on lands they occupy, recognizing previous French agreements.

1763: Stepan Glotlov lands on Kodiak Island, Alaska, and attempts to persuade natives to pay tribute to Imperial government. They refuse and attack the Russians.

1797: San Fernando Mission, Calif., established near a village of Anchois Indians that has since been replaced by strip malls.

1862: Birth of Cecil Wilson, pacifist parliamentarian, Britain.

1883: Sitting Bull (Tatanka Iyotake), main chief of the Lakota (Sioux) tribes, delivers a speech, at the celebration of the driving of the last spike in the Northern Pacific railroad joining with the transcontinental system, to great applause. He delivered the speech in his Sioux language, departing from a speech original prepared with an army translator. Denouncing the US government, settlers, and army, the listeners thought he was welcoming and praising them. While giving the speech, Sitting Bull paused for applause periodically, bowed, smiled, and continued insulting and making asses of the audience and US authorities as the translator delivered the original address.

1901: Francisco Ferrer opens the libertarian Escuela Moderna in Barcelona, Spain.

1909: Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) strikers at the Pressed Steel Car Plant in McKees Rock, Pennsylvania, force management to improve shop conditions, hike wages by 15 percent, and drop a "pool system," which determined a worker's pay according to the output of a group. The company paid a group's entire pay to the foreman, who doled it out as he saw fit.

1911: Birth of naturalist Euell Gibbons. Many parts are edible. Clarksville, Texas.

1911: Opening of the founding congress of the Spanish anarcho-syndicalist Confederacion Nacional del Trabajo (CNT).

1916: Death of Walter Roberts, first of 73 British WWI conscientious objectors to die as a result of their prison treatment.

1921: Margaret Gorman became the first Miss America.

1925: Birth of film comic Peter Sellers. His role in "Being There" (1979) anticipated George W. Bush to near perfection.

1935: Louisiana Senator--and Governor--Huey P. Long is shot to death in the corridor of the state capitol in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, by Dr. Carl Austin Weiss, Jr., who is gunned down, in turn, by Long's bodyguards.

1941: Workers strike against diversion of milk to military use by the Nazis, Norway.

1944: The first German V-2 rockets are launched from the Netherlands, landing at Chiswick in London, killing three people.

1954: Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) established by the US and seven other nations, only two of which (Thailand and the Philippines, the latter until recently a US colony) were actually in Southeast Asia.

1965: Strike of Filipino and Mexican farmworkers against grape growers in Delano, California marks the beginning of a successful five-year strike by United Farm Workers throughout California.

1968: Huey Newton, head of the Black Panther Party, convicted in Oakland of voluntary manslaughter in the killing of an Oakland policeman.

1971: Beginning of the Attica (New York) Prison revolt. The interracial revolt was led by blacks but featured cooperation between prisoners of different racial and ethnic backgrounds, and was finally brutally suppressed by the state five days later, with 29 prisoners and 10 guards shot and killed by attacking state troopers. The prisoners were demanding improvements in their living and working conditions.

1974: President Ford pardons former Pres. Richard Nixon for any crimes he "committed or may have committed" while President. The act would ultimately cost Ford re-election in 1976.

1977: Blacklisted film comedian Zero Mostel dies.

1978: Three thousand unarmed demonstrators killed by Shah's troops, Teheran, Iran.

1983: Eight thousand Chileans attend funeral of bus driver killed at a protest.

1988: Four white supremacists plead guilty in Boise, Idaho to plotting bombings, robberies, and the murder of Morris Dees of the Southern Poverty Law Center.

1994: Festivities mark departure of US and NATO soldiers from Berlin.

1997: Strike shuts down Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) in San Francisco area.

September 09

1590: Rebecca Lemp, the wife of an accountant and mother of six, is burned at the stake as a witch in Nordlingen, Germany. Victim to political ambitions of two lawyers and a burgomaster, Lemp was arrested with 12 other women. She was tortured five times before confessing. Lemp was among 32 highly respected women who are burned as witches in Nordlingen that year. Historians estimate that as many as nine million European women were killed as witches in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries.

1739: Slave revolt in Stono, South Carolina.

1841: Great Lakes steamer "Erie" sinks off Silver Creek NY, kills 300.

1869: Anarchist, Haymarket martyr Louis Lingg born. Haymarket occurred when he was 19; convicted of Haymarket bombing, blew he himself up in jail. His last words in his address to the court in the Haymarket Trial: "I despise you. I despise your order, your laws, your force-propped authority. Hang me for it!"

1873: Swinomish Reservation created for Lower Skagit and other tribes.

1910: Alice B. Toklas and Gertrude Stein take up lifetime residence together.

1911: Birth of influential '60s anarchist, alternativist writer Paul Goodman, New York City.

1919: Over 1,000 Boston police strike when 19 union leaders are fired for organizing activities. The strike precipitated widespread looting by the citizenry. Massachusetts Governor Calvin Coolidge put down the strike by calling out the entire state militia and all strikers are fired.

1934: Birth of black radical poet Sonia Sanchez.

1942: In a rare raid against the US mainland, Japan drops incendiaries over Oregon in an attempt to set fire to the forests of Oregon and Washington. The forests failed to ignite. By contrast, well over two million Japanese citizens died in their homeland during the war.

1950: First use of TV laugh track.

1964: Dynamite blast attributed to the Ku Klux Klan rocked the home of a black minister in McComb, Mississippi.

1968: Committee of 100, pioneer British anti-nuclear group of 1950's and early 60's, dissolves itself.

1976: Death of Mao Zedong, 82, "The Great Helmsman," who led the world's most populous country for 27 years and survived repeated attacks on his leadership by brutally suppressing his opposition, most notably in the Cultural Revolution. Mao's "Red China" was also the last serious attempt by a major country to improve its living standards by operating outside the Western capitalist economy.

1980: Eight activists from the Atlantic Life Community hammer nose cone of missile at GE plant in King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, in the first of what would become an international movement of many dozens of "Plowshares" anti-nuclear direct actions.

1995: Demobilization of army's civilian auxiliary announced, Guatemala.

1997: Mexico City police sweep poor neighborhoods; arrest, torture, and kill six youths.

September 10

1349: Jews who survived a massacre in Constance, Germany are burned to death.

1797: Anarchist, feminist Mary Wollstonecraft (Godwin), dies. Author of first great modern feminist tract in English, "Vindication of the Rights of Women." Married to anarchist philosopher William Godwin, she died, age 36, of "childbed fever" after giving birth Aug. 30 to Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin (Shelley), who would write "Frankenstein."

1857: Mountain Meadows Massacre. Mormons offer to escort a Gentile train passing through Utah to safety from the Indians, then line up all the adult males in single file with a Mormon guide on each side, and at a prearranged signal, massacre them all in cold blood. Mormon Militia, disguised as Indians, along with real Indians, moved in on the women and older children, shooting, clubbing and tomahawking them to death.

1862: Four months after US Congress amends a law that had required all Army chaplains to be Christians, Rabbi Jacob Frankel of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, becomes the first Jewish Army chaplain.

1877: Birth of Georgia Douglas Johnson, Harlem Renaissance writer.

1895: Birth of Melville Herskovits, pioneer of African-American studies.

1897: Nineteen unarmed striking miners killed, 40 wounded by sheriff's deputies at Latimer, Penn. for refusing to disperse, by a posse organized by the Luzerne County sheriff. The strikers, most of whom were shot in the back, were originally brought in as strike-breakers, but later organized themselves.

1898: Anarchist Luigi Luccheni stabs Elisabeth of Austria, "Sissi," in Geneva, using a frayed file, to strike against "the persecutors of the workmen." The Swiss courts condemned him to forced labor. Found hanged in the prison in 1910.

1901: Emma Goldman arrested in alleged link to McKinley assassin.

1913: Lincoln Highway opens as 1st paved coast-to-coast highway in US

1924: Leopold and Loeb found guilty of murder.

1941: Trade union leaders shot by German firing squads in reprisal for workers' strike, Norway.

1945: Save Europe Now (famine relief campaign) launched, England.

1945: Vidkun Quisling, puppet prime minister of German-occupied Norway, is sentenced to death in Norway. His name enters the English language, meaning "a traitor to collaborate with the invaders of his country, esp. by serving in a puppet government."

1962: US Supreme Court rules James Meredith be admitted to University of Mississippi.

1963: Twenty Negro children integrated into Birmingham schools despite opposition by city.

1967: CBS censors Pete Seeger's song "Big Muddy" on the Smothers Brothers Hour.

1969: Wiretap is placed, under Nixon White House orders, on CBS reporter Marvin Kalb.

1973: Commemorative stamp of Henry Ossawa Tanner issued by the US Postal Service. Part of its American Arts issue, the stamp celebrates his work and accomplishments. The first African-American artist elected to the National Academy of Design.

1974: Guinea-Bissau wins national liberation struggle for independence from Portugal.

1976: Dalton Trumbo dies. Author, screenwriter. Wrote the anti-war novel "Johnny Got His Gun." Member of the Hollywood Ten, a group who refused to testify before the 1947 US House Committee on Un-American Activities about alleged communist involvement. He was blacklisted and spent 11 months in prison. After his blacklisting, he wrote 30 scripts under pseudonyms.

1977: Hamida Djandoubi, a Tunisian immigrant convicted of murder, becomes the last person executed with the guillotine in France.

1980: Manila, Philippines: 10,000 people defy government order and hold "Freedom March"; US-supported Marcos dictatorship government kills eight.

1983: Four days of protests and barricading starts in opposition to the US- installed Chilean dictatorship of Augosto Pinochet.

1985: Salvadoran guerrillas capture Ines Guadalupe Duarte Duran, the daughter of President Jose Napolean Duarte. The kidnapping draws criticism from European and Latin American governments, but an October 24 prisoner exchange wins freedom for 20 rebel leaders and wounded insurgents. The guerrillas release photographs and tape recordings indicating a certain sympathy for the rebel cause from Senora Duarte Duran, driving a wedge between President Duarte and his backers in the army and oligarchy.

1996: First weekly issue of "Eat the State!" published in Seattle, Washington. The following year, wins accolades from readers of a conservative "Seattle Weekly" media column. Go figure. (ETS!'s founder, Geov Parrish, became the Weekly's political columnist in 1998, a position he still holds.)

1996: UN votes 158-3 to ban all nuclear test blasts. Guess which way the US voted?

September 11

1227: Plague strikes the 5th Crusade, of Fredrick II, ending it.

1589: Barbara Huebmeyer, Appela Huebmeyer, and Anna Schnelling burned as witches.

1773: Benjamin Franklin writes, "There never was a good war or bad peace."

1812: Luddite Potato riot in Nottingham, England.

1893: 443 Hoh move to new reservation established on coast of Olympic Peninsula.

1895: India: birth of Vinoba Bhave, land reformer.

1906: Gandhi begins nonviolent resistance campaign, Johannesburg, South Africa.

1925: IWW marine strike.

1942: Underground Norwegian trade union newspapers arrange thousands of letters to government rejecting Nazification.

1973: CIA overthrows democratically elected government of Chile, assassinating President Salvador Allende, folk singer Victor Jara, and many others. Sixteen years of repressive military rule follows. Guards singled out Jara as he continued to sing protest songs in the stadium, beat him viciously, and machine-gunned his mutilated body in front of the other prisoners. The US-backed military dictatorship banned Jara's music, image, and name, and, for a time, even outlawed the public performance of the evocative folk-guitar. Coup was led by General Augusto Pinochet. He immediately killed or "disappeared" hundreds, and, in coming years, thousands more. Striking Chilean labor unions, instrumental in destabilizing the Allende government, were secretly bankrolled by the CIA.

1976: A police officer is killed attempting to dismantle a bomb in New York City's Grand Central Station. Croatian militants claimed responsibility.

1980: Camp David accords between Israel and Egypt go into effect.

1980: Federal District Court judge dismisses an $11 billion suit filed by Oglala Lakota for damages to, and restoration of, the sacred Black Hills in South Dakota.

1987: Reggae star Peter Tosh is shot and killed in his home in Kingston, Jamaica. Police say Tosh was shot in the head after refusing to give money to robbers.

1988: The Innu of North West River in Labrador, Canada, begin protesting low-altitude training at NATO base near Goose Bay, citing environmental damage. The ongoing campaign has included numerous runway occupations by the Innu, and solidarity actions across Western Europe, but has received little attention in the US, which funds much of the base operations.

1990: US anthropologist Myma Mack murdered by US-paid Guatemalan military.

1990: US Pres. George Bush claims 120,000 Iraqi troops with 850 tanks are moving south in Kuwait, toward Saudi Arabia. Soviet satellite photos taken today show no troop build-up.

2001: Terrorists hijack four commercial airplanes in Eastern US, manage to successfully fly three of them: two into the World Trade Center's twin towers, destroying them, and a third into the west side of the Pentagon. Nearly 3,000 killed, democracy and American sense of invulnerability badly wounded.

September 12

1860: American adventurer William Walker, who became dictator of Nicaragua before being deposed by Cornelius Vanderbilt, then attempted to invade Honduras, is executed by a Honduras firing squad after being captured by the British.

1872: The Malheur reservation in eastern Oregon is established for several bands of Northern Paiutes.

1880: H. L. Mencken, editor, satirist, and sharp-witted political commentator, born in Baltimore. One of the most influential American critics in the 1920s; a libertarian before the word came into popular usage. And frequently hilarious.

1891: Birth of Albizu Campos, leader of the Puerto Rican independence movement.

1909: A young man, Emiliano Zapata, is elected to head the town council by villagers of Anenecuneo, Mexico.

1915: Genocide of Armenians begins, Turkey.

1918: First use of army tank, in France.

1918: Eugene Debs sentenced to 10 years for protesting war.

1932: Unemployed workers, near starvation after county authorities cut off relief, march on grocery stores and take food, Toledo, Ohio.

1935: Birth of Richard Hunt, African American, a leading sculptor. Chicago, Illinois.

1940: Hercules Powder Company plant in Kenvil, New Jersey blows up, killing 49 people, injuring 200 others.

1944: Birth of Native American activist and political prisoner Leonard Peltier.

1945: Ford workers in Windsor, Ontario, Canada begin strike, leading to introduction of the Rand Formula.

1948: In San Sebastien, Antonio Ortiz, anarchist, takes part with Primitivo Gomez and Jose Perez in an attempt to bomb (using a small private plane) the official platform where Spanish dictator Franco is speechifying. Intercepted by Spanish fighters, but escapes.

1953: Nikita Khrushchev becomes Secretary of USSR Communist Party.

1970: Comandos Armados Liberacion bombs US governors convention, San Juan, Puerto Rico.

1970: Timothy Leary escapes from prison in San Luis Obispo, Calif. with help from the Weather Underground; joins Eldridge Cleaver in Algiers.

1977: Student anti-apartheid leader Steve Biko murdered while in police custody, Port Elizabeth, South Africa.

1982: First dump trucks loaded with PCBs drive into Afton, Warren County, North Carolina, the poorest county in the state, are met by vigil of 50 to 300 protestors waiting daily for the last month; 510 arrests made. (Protestors, not the PCB guys).

1992: A freighter flying the Greek flag is denied entry at Long Beach, California, for repairs because its cargo of Chinese rice is bound for Cuba, after Pres. Bush enacted an Executive Order banning ships trading with Cuba.)

1997: 1,111 Zapatistas march to Mexico City.

September 13

1663: First serious recorded slave revolt in colonial America in Gloucester County, Virginia. The conspirators, both white servants and black slaves, are betrayed by fellow indentured servants.

1743: England, Austria, and Savoye-Sardinia sign Treaty of Worms.

1759: Battle of the Plains of Abraham, Quebec City. One of the most important battles in North American history, in which the British drove the French out of Canada.

1814: "Star-Spangled Banner" written to the tune of a drinking song.

1847: In the final, decisive battle of the Mexican-American War, US Army seizes Mexico City, forces Mexico to cede nearly half its land mass -- what are now Arizona, New Mexico, and portions of Alta California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, and Texas.

1858: Students at Oberlin College free fugitive slave from slave catchers.

1880: England passes the first Employers' Liability Act, granting compensation to workers injured on the job.

1886: Birth of Alain Locke, Philadelphia, Pa. First African-American Rhodes scholar and an influential writer, educator, and philosopher.

1899: First person in US killed by automobile. More to follow.

1940: Buckingham Palace destroyed by German bombs.

1948: Margaret Chase Smith (R-ME) elected senator; first woman to serve in both houses of Congress.

1961: Bertrand Russell, aged 89, and 32 others arrested for a major demonstration against nuclear weapons in Trafalgar Square, London.

1971: Pres. Nixon, speaking to chief of staff Bob Haldeman: "Now here's the point, Bob. Please get me the names of the Jews. You know, the big Jewish contributors to the Democrats. Could we please investigate some of the cocksuckers?"

1971: Five hundred New York state troopers storm Attica Prison, ending a five-day-long uprising by opening fire. After firing 2,200 bullets in 9 minutes, 29 prisoners and 10 guards are left dead; 86 others are injured. The attack was ordered by Gov. (later Vice President) Nelson Rockefeller, who refused to take part in the preceding negotiations.

1972: Forty pissed off Indians take over BIA office in Pawnee, Okla.

1982: European Parliament votes for phasing out promotion and advertising of war toys.

1982: Residents demand damages for damages caused by radioactive exposure during above ground nuclear tests in 1950s in southern Nevada and Utah.

1983: First accompaniment group from Peace Brigades International arrives in Guatemala to provide nonviolent witness and protection for indigenous leaders.

1993: Israel and PLO agree to "limited" self-rule for Palestine.

1993: Direct action begins against construction of M11 freeway in East London.

September 14

1812: Napoleon occupies Moscow.

1830: Supt. Dart arrives at Point Orford, Oregon, to persuade 500 Coquille and Tututni Indians to cede their valuable land.

1874: The White Leagues, paramilitary organizations dedicated to the restoration of lily-white rule in Louisiana, temporarily seize control of the state government in a bloody coup d'etat. Twenty-seven killed, 105 wounded.

1883: Reproductive rights advocate Margaret Sanger born.

1891: John Adams Hyman dies in Washington, D.C. The first African-American congressman from North Carolina.

1899: While in New York, Henry Bliss becomes first automobile fatality.

1901: Pres. William McKinley dies of gangrene which set in as a result of the gunshot wounds he suffered September 6. His injuries originally were not considered serious.

1918: Eugene Debs imprisoned for opposing US entry into World War I, violating the Espionage Act. Sentenced to 10 years.

1923: Murder of Ito Noe, Japanese anarchist and feminist.

1930: Over 100 Mexican and Filipino farm workers arrested for union activities, Imperial Valley, California.

1940: First peacetime draft in the US was initiated.

1956: First prefrontal lobotomy performed, Washington DC. Really.

1959: Landrum-Griffin Act passed, further limiting trade union activities in US

1963: Due to pressure from folksingers boycotting television's "Hootenanny" program, ABC invites Pete Seeger to appear on the show--only if he'll sign an oath of loyalty to the US He refuses, and ABC extends its blacklist/ban on him.

1968: Four hundred Viet Cong killed in 24-hour battle.

1968: Forty oversea officials of the United States Information Agency are required to attend a concert in D.C. by Blood, Sweat, and Tears. It's part of the USIA's program to acquaint its overseas staff with cultural developments in the homeland.

1972: US Senate approves US-Soviet "freeze" of offensive nuclear arsenals.

1982: Wisconsin becomes first US state to support nuclear freeze referendum. 1983: US House of Representatives votes, 416 to 0, in favor of a resolution condemning the Soviet Union for shooting down a Korean jetliner. Later studies indicate Russian charges the US was using the passenger liner as a spy plane are probably true.

1985: US TOW antitank missiles sent to Iran by Israel in Iran-Contra Deal.

1988: Hundreds in San Francisco protest appearance by Vice Pres. and presidential candidate (and very bad father) George Bush; in the ensuing police riot, cops rupture the spleen of and nearly kill legendary 58-year-old Chiaana labor organizer Dolores Huerta

1990: Pentagon announces $20 billion arms sale to Saudi Arabia.

1991: South African government, African National Congress and Inkatha Freedom Party sign the National Peace Accord, leading to multi-racial elections and the end of South Africa's apartheid system in 1994.

1991: US and Soviet Union sign an agreement calling for an end to all outside military assistance to warring factions in Afghanistan. The fiercely conservative Muslim opposition to 1979's Soviet invasion had, with CIA training and support, eventually forced a Soviet withdrawal in 1989. Among the CIA's students: the faction later known to the world as the Taliban, and Osama bin Laden.

2001: About 2,000 gather in New York's Union Square, near the site of a horrific terrorist attack three days earlier, to call for peace, the first such large public rally in the US Within days, scores of other cities follow suit.

September 15

1394: Charles VI, King of France, expels the Jews from France.

1620: Pilgrims set off from Plymouth, England, aiming for the British colony in Virginia. Their errant course proved disastrous for New England's natives.

1782: Congress adopts a Masonic emblem as the Great Seal of the US

1821: Central America declares independence from Spain.

1830: William Huskisson, a popular member of the British Parliament, became the first person to be run over by a railroad train. He was to speak at the opening of the Manchester & Liverpool Railway when he failed to look both ways before crossing.

1845: Female cotton workers strike for the 10-hour day. Allegheny, Penn.

1891: Birth of Agatha Christie, Torquay, Devon. Wrote hundreds of books, some under the pseudonym Mary Westmancott.

1894: Japan defeats China in Battle of Ping Yang.

1916: First tank used in war, "Little Willies" at Battle of Flors, France.

1923: Ku Klux Klan activity in Oklahoma reached such a high pitch that the Governor was forced to declare a "state of rebellion and insurrection."

1928: Scottish bacteriologist Alexander Fleming discovers, by accident, the antibiotic effects of the penicillin mold.

1935: During the National Socialist congress in Nuremberg, the German Reichstag adopts the anti-Jewish Nuremberg Laws. The laws legitimize anti-Semitism and the so-called "purity of German blood." They also forbid marriage and sexual relations between Germans and Jews. Jews will no longer enjoy any protection from the state. Eventually they lose access to law and the courts--and are left completely at the mercy of the secret police and concentration camps.

1936: Sixty-eight thousand French textile workers strike at Lille.

1958: Forty die as a train unsuccessfully attempts to cross an open drawbridge near Bayonne, New Jersey.

1959: Soviet Premier Nikita Khruschev denied entry into Disneyland. Goofy Cold War results.

1963: Six children attending Sunday School are killed in a Ku Klux Klan bombing of Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama, a turning point in generating broad American sympathy for the civil rights movement. At 10:19 A.M., 15 sticks of explosive blew apart the church basement and the children in the changing room. The four dead: Addie Mae Collins, Carole Robertson, and Cynthia Wesley, all 14; and Denise McNair, 11. Some 20 others were injured. Prime suspects were the KKK and Nacirema (white supremacist organizations; Nacirema, fittingly, was derived from "American" spelled backwards). A member of the church, studying on a scholarship in Paris at the time, was Birmingham High School student Angela Davis.

1970: Vice President Spiro Agnew says the youth of America are being "brainwashed into a drug culture" by rock music, movies, books, and underground newspapers. Later, of course, it would be the pharmaceutical companies.

1972: Israel launches massive retaliatory raid in southern Lebanon to root out PLO guerrillas. That solved that problem.

1973: Victor Jara murdered in massacre, four days after the CIA-sponsored overthrow of Salvador Allende. Santiago Stadium, Chile.

1974: Outdoor modern art show bulldozed by authorities in Moscow. Could have been motivated either by totalitarian impulses or aesthetic ones.

1981: Blockade starts at nuclear power plant construction site, Diablo Canyon, California. Over two weeks, 1,901 are arrested in the largest occupation of a nuclear power site in US history.

1986: Vietnam Veterans Duncan Murphy and Brian Willson join Charles Liteky and George Mizo in the Fast For Life, opposing US support of the contra war against Nicaragua.

1995: Lakota tribal elders protest making of film based (apparently quite loosely) on the life of Crazy Horse. Rapid City, South Dakota.

1996: Six thousand rally and 1,033 are arrested near the Headwaters Grove in rural Carlotta, Calif., in a protest against the logging of one of the last large unlogged redwood stands in the world.

2001: Four days after 9-11, Rep. Barbara Lee (D-CA) casts the only Congressional vote opposing the granting of unlimited military power to Pres. Bush.

September 16

1498: Tomas de Torquemada, inquisitor who burned 10,000 people, dies.

1672: Anne Bradstreet, first woman poet of the American colonies, dies in Andover, Massachusetts, at about age 60.

1692: Eighty-year-old Giles Corey, charged with witchcraft, is crushed to death in Salem, Massachusetts. Corey was crushed to death for refusing to testify during his trial. The Salem witchcraft hysteria lead to 19 hangings. The trials started when Tituba, a slave belonging to Rev. Samuel Parris, is accused of bewitching village girls. Tituba's colorful stories of her native Barbados entertained the young women and prompted them to perform strange antics and bark like dogs. Parris beat and abused Tituba until she admitted she was a witch. She was jailed in Boston for 13 months until someone else bought her.

1845: Thomas Osborne Davis dies in Dublin. Irish writer/politician who was the chief organizer and poet of the nationalistic Young Ireland movement.

1873: Birth of Mexican anarchist Ricardo Flores Magon.

1893: Cherokee strip invasion, also called the Oklahoma land rush, begins. Among participants is E.P. McCabe, who will founds the all-African-American town of Liberty a few days later.

1908 : Founding of General Motors.

1910: Mexican revolution ends US-supported dictatorship of Portolio Diaz.

1915: US takes control of customs and finances of Haiti for 10 years.

1920: Bomb explosion outside the J.P. Morgan Company on Wall Street killed 40, injured over 100, and did $2 million worth of damage. Authorities blame "anarchists," including Mario Buda, protesting the indictment of Sacco and Vanzetti. They subsequently fled to Russia.

1923: Japanese anarchist Osugi Sakae murdered by police.

1925: Birth of blues great B.B. King, Indianola, Mississippi.

1933: Emperor Jones, starring Paul Robeson as Brutus Jones, is released by United Artists. It is Robeson's first starring movie role and the first major Hollywood production starring an African-American with whites in supporting roles.

1952: Death of Corder Catchpool, British pacifist. Switzerland.

1953: Anti-communist economist and writer Lewis Corey (aka Louis C. Fraina) dies, 61, during deportation proceedings against him because he was a Communist during the early 1920s.

1963: Beginning of five-day strike at Folsom state prison, California.

1964: East German conscientious objectors allowed to work on road construction.

1971: Five thousand farmers and students battle 5,000 police in demonstration at Sanrizuka, Japan, to prevent government taking of land for Tokyo International Airport at Narita. They lost.

1974: A federal judge dismisses all charges against American Indian Movement leaders Dennis Banks and Russell Means stemming from the 1973 occupation of Wounded Knee, South Dakota.

1974: Pres. Gerald Ford announces conditional amnesty for US Vietnam War deserters.

1979: The New York City ghetto music in which performers chant rhymed and rhythmic verses over prerecorded instrumental dance tracks makes it onto vinyl with the release of the Sugar Hill Gang's "Rapper's Delight." Industry warned that rap had no commercial appeal.

1982: Massacre of over 1,000 civilian Palestinian refugees begins, Sabnra and Shatila camps, Lebanon.

1991: Philippine Senate defeats treaty allowing continued operation of US military bases in the Philippines.

September 17

1179: Hildegard of Bingen, archetypal medieval feminist, dies.

1787: Constitution of US is ratified by two-thirds of the colonies and adopted.

1796: George Washington's farewell address, in which he declined to run for a third term as president. He strongly warned against permanent alliances with foreign powers, large public debts, large military establishment and devices of any "small, artful, enterprising minority" to control or change the government.

1858: Col. Wright dictates terms of surrender to Indians at Coeur d'Alene mission; 24 chiefs of Yakama, Cayuse, Wallawalla, Palouse and Spokane tribes are shot or hanged.

1859: Joshua A. Norton, who lost his money in an attempt to corner the rice market, today declares himself Norton I, Emperor of the United States and Protector of Mexico. San Francisco.

1862: In the bloodiest single day of fighting in the American Civil War, more than 23,000 men are killed, wounded, or missing in action at the Battle of Antietam in western Maryland.

1868: Working Women's Association formed in US

1879: Birth of Andrew "Rube" Foster, father of Negro Leagues baseball, Galveston, Texas.

1896: Seven hundred thousand Europeans face down soldiers to strike for $200/month minimum wage.

1900: One hundred thousand Pennsylvania anthracite coal miners go on strike. After the Molly Maguire trials in 1876, unionism disappeared from the state's 500 square miles of hard-coal fields. English-speaking workers were replaced by workers from 20 different nations. Suspicious of each other, they appeared almost impossible to organize. But led by Johnny Mitchell in 1898, the United Mine Workers quietly began a campaign. The miners' average annual wage is 250 dollars a year. They are paid by the ton, which Pennsylvania defines as 2,400 pounds but which mine operators have increased to as much as 4,000 pounds.

1935: Birth of hippie bus driver, psychedelician, author Ken Kesey.

1938: Washington state CIO formed.

1939: USS.R. invades Poland, jointly occupying it with Nazis. This completes the terms of the non-aggression pact signed between Hitler/Stalin on August 23. Poland will not be free of Soviet domination for another 60 years.

1939: American aviation hero and Nazi sympathizer Charles Lindbergh makes his first anti-intervention radio speech. The US non-intervention movement was a huge mixed bag. Supported by former president Herbert Hoover, Teddy Roosevelt, Jr., Henry Ford (another Nazi admirer), Anne Morrow Lindbergh (a more rabid pro-Nazi than her husband), and a number of congressmen as well.

1943: Ammunition at the Naval Air station in Norfolk, Virginia explodes, killing 24 and injuring 250. The second major military disaster in Norfolk in 1943.

1960: Mobs attack the US embassy in Panama in a dispute over the flying of the US and Panamanian flags.

1961: 1,314 arrested in anti-bomb sit-down, Trafalgar Square, London.

1980: Former Nicaraguan dictator Anastasio Somoza assassinated in Paraguay.

1983: Three thousand demonstrate against nuclear power, Hamm-Uentrop, West Germany.

1983: Vanessa Williams named Miss America, the first African-American winner in the history of the meat pageant. Relinquishes her crown after a 1984 scandal.

1988: Haiti's military government overthrown. It'll be back, thanks to the CIA.

1989: Jay Stewart, announcer on "Let's Make a Deal," commits suicide. Couldn't deal with it.

September 18

1634: Spiritual freethinker Anne Hutchinson arrives in Boston.

1838: Under forced removal order of Indiana Governor J. Tipton, Potawatomi are delivered to the ironically named "Immigrant Agency."

1850: Fugitive Slave Act is passed, specifying harsh penalties for those who interfere with the apprehension of runaway slaves. A part of the Compromise of 1850, it offers federal officers a fee for captured slaves.

1851: First issue of The New York Times was published, featuring an editorial by a mythical industrialist named "Thomas Friedman."

1873: Jay Cooke and Company, banking agent for the Northern Pacific Railroad, fails, touching off the Panic of 1873. The New York Stock Exchange closed its doors by the end of the month. 5,183 businesses failed as the nation suffered a severe depression that lasted until 1877.

1889: Hull House is opened by Jane Addams and associates with the intention of helping immigrants settle and naturalize in Chicago.

1891: Harriet Maxwell Converse (her Indian name was Ga-is- wa-noh--"The Watcher") became the first white woman to be named chief of an Indian tribe. Converse became chief of the Six Nations Tribe at Tonawanda Reservation in New York. She had been adopted by the Seneca tribe seven years earlier because of her efforts on behalf of the tribe.

1895: Booker T. Washington makes a speech at the Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta, Georgia. Known as the "Atlanta Compromise" speech, Washington advocates acceptance of a subordinate role for African-Americans, espouses peaceful coexistence with white Southerners, and deems agitation for social equality "the extremist folly." The speech reportedly leaves some African-American listeners in tears and incurs the wrath of W.E.B. DuBois and others, but secures his reputation among whites as a successor to Frederick Douglass.

1895: Birth of Daniel David Palmer. Gave the first chiropractic adjustment to Harvey Lillard in Davenport, Iowa--now the home of Palmer Chiropractic College.

1917: Aldous Huxley, 23, is hired as a schoolmaster at Eton, where he counts among his unruly pupils Eric Arthur Blair (George Orwell).

1945: Voline, Russian revolutionary and anarchist historian, dies. He had been arrested on Jan. 14 by military agents of Stalin and dragged from one prison to another. Trotsky already had ordered his execution, and according to Voline, he escaped death only by sheer accident: in 1921 the Red Trade Union International held a Congress in Moscow. The delegates included representatives of some anarcho-syndicalist organizations in Spain, France, and other countries, who had come to ascertain whether an alliance with this new International was feasible. They arrived just as anarchists in the Taganka prison went on a hunger strike for over 10 days. The Bolsheviks, publicly embarrassed and embroiled with the scandal in the Congress, released the hunger-strikers on the condition that they leave Russia. It was the first time political prisoners were deported from the vaunted Red Fatherland of the Proletariat.

1958: Termination without tribal consent was ended "in spirit" (but not in practice) by US Secretary of Interior.

1968: After two months of protests, Mexican federal troops occupy National University in Mexico City, taking 3,000 prisoners, including professors and parents. The students, in alliance with poor workers, made a last stand in the suburb of Tlatelolco, which left 20 dead and 75 wounded.

1970: Rock legend Jimi Hendrix dies of an accidental barbiturate overdose, London. At least it was his own vomit.

1971: Three police killed, hundreds hurt protesting Narita airport plan, which would destroy farmlands northeast of Tokyo.

1975: Eighteen months after her abduction, San Francisco police "rescue" kidnapped heiress-turned-revolutionary Patty Hearst, killing most of her Symbionese Liberation Army comrades in the process.

1975: George Jackson Brigade bombs a Seattle Safeway store in solidarity with the grape boycott.

1980: Cuban Cosmonaut Arnoldo Tamayo becomes first Black in space. 1985: US and USS.R. reach a tentative agreement on a world-wide ban of medium-range nuclear missiles. Hopes of reducing the number of missiles soon ended in Iceland when Soviet Premier Gorbachev called for a limit on the development of "Star Wars" weapons and Ronald Reagan refused.

1987: Pope John Paul II, whose authority rests solely on 2,000 years of Christian tradition, speaks to Native American leaders in Phoenix, Arizona, urging them to forget the past.

1991: Native American political prisoner Eddie Hatcher is stabbed four times in back by a prisoner paid by the prison administration, North Carolina.

1997: Ten killed by Islamic militant gun and bomb attack on bus. Cairo, Egypt.

September 19

1833: Mary Jemison, "race traitor," adopted Senecan "white Indian," dies.

1853: Cow Creek band of Umpqua tribe signs treaty ceding lands in Southwest Oregon.

1865: Chinese coal miners driven out of Black Diamond, Wash.

1892: Alexander Berkman sentenced to 22 years in prison for attempt on life of Frick.

1913: Birth of Seattle native, actress, activist and lobotomy victim Frances Farmer.

1931: Japan invades Chinese province of Manchuria.

1940: Journalist "discovers" Jay Fox, the "sole surviving anarchist" farming at Home Colony, Washington.

1952: Due to his political beliefs, US bars Charlie Chaplin from reentering to the country after a trip to England.

1955: Argentina ousts dictator Juan Peron.

1957: First underground nuclear test, at Nevada Test Site, US

1966: Joan Baez leads 160 Negro children to Mississippi elementary school.

1969: A bomb causes serious damage to the new Federal Office Building in New York City.

1973: Pirate Radio Free America (off Cape May, New Jersey) goes on the air.

1974: US intelligence sources reveal that striking Chilean labor unions, instrumental in destabilizing the Allende government during a bloody 1973 coup that led to 16 years of brutal military dictatorship, were secretly bankrolled by the CIA.

1977: Lawsuit filed which would become "University of California vs Bakke," a groundbreaking claim of "reverse discrimination" by a white prospective law student (Bakke) passed over for admission due to affirmative action.

1981: Three hundred thousand march in Washington to protest Pres. Reagan's race policies.

1985: Italo Calvino dies in Siena, Italy. While working on several communist periodicals, he began writing his own stories, becoming one of the most important Italian writers of the 20th century.

1985: The first of two killer earthquakes hit Mexico City--this one, 8.1 on the Richter scale, followed the next day by one measuring 7.5--crumbling buildings (damages estimated at more than one billion dollars) and killing almost 10,000 people.

1988: Burma rebels.

1990: Remains of 828 dead, radioactive beagles from 1950s animal experiments at UC-Davis are buried at Hanford Nuclear Reservation.

1994: US troops land, again, in Haiti.

1996: IBM extends health care coverage and other benefits to partners of its lesbian/gay workers. Largest US business to date to adopt policy.

2001: Some 5,000 march in a nighttime procession through Seattle's Capitol Hill neighborhood, mourning the dead of Sept. 11 and calling for a non- military response by the US

September 20

1575: First inter-colonial war begins in Florida.

1830: National Negro Convention, a group of 38 free African-Americans from eight states, meets in Philadelphia, Pa., with the express purpose of abolishing slavery and improving the social status of African-Americans. They elect Richard Allen president and agree to boycott slave-produced goods and encourage free-produce organizations. The most active will be the Colored Females' Free Produce Society, which seeks to overthrow the economic power of slavery one bolt of cotton and teaspoon of sugar at a time. The movement elevates Black women activists such as Frances Harper and Grace Douglass.

1873: New York Stock Exchange closed its doors for 10 days in response to the financial chaos engendered by the Panic of 1873.

1878: Birth of Upton Sinclair, novelist and socialist.

1895: After waves of protest, Italian anarchist Luigi Molinari receives amnesty for a 23 year prison sentence he had received from a military tribunal in Jan. 1894, for leading an insurrection in Lunigiani in support of Sicilian victims of the State of Siege (beginning of January to repress the revolts against increased flour prices).

1903: Troops sent to Cripple Creek, Colo. to break miners' strike.

1906: Upton Sinclair's "The Jungle" published.

1932: Rabindranath Tagore urges resistance to practice of "untouchability"; In Yaravda, Gandhi begins six-day "Epic Fast" in jail against separate electorate for untouchables. British India.

1933: German Jews are barred from owning land and from all public activities.

1945: After the collapse of Nazi Germany, rocket scientist Von Braun arrives in the US under "Operation Paperclip"--a program that was supposed to exclude Nazis, but became a cover for "rehabilitating" them. His dossier was rewritten so he didn't appear to have been an ardent Nazi.

1946: President Truman dismisses Secretary of Commerce Henry Wallace for being "soft" in his policy toward the USS.R.

1958: In a Harlem department store autographing copies of his book "Stride Toward Freedom," Martin Luther King is stabbed in the chest and seriously wounded with a letter opener wielded by a deranged woman.

1972: Richard Oaks, Mohawk activist who started the Alcatraz Island occupation in 1969, is murdered.

1974: Kootenai Nation in northern Idaho declares war on the US government, with the objective of gaining a reservation and tribal housing, roads, and a community center.

1977: Vietnam finally admitted to UN

1984: Suicide car bomb attacks US Embassy annex in Beirut.

1986: Workers strike against construction of "counter-guerrilla" base, Sri Lanka.

1991: Neo-Nazi pogrom against immigrants in Hovenswende, Germany.

1992: Kurdish writer Musa Anter is assassinated by a Turkish death squad.

1997: 3,000 protesters help to rip up the railroad tracks leading from Krummel nuclear power station to the main Hamburg-Berlin line.

September 21

1638: In the final act of the Pequot War, English officials and their Native American allies in Connecticut divide the surviving 72 Pequots and enslave them.

1776: Fire sweeps through New York City, destroying nearly 300 buildings.

1784: First successful daily newspaper in the US, the "Pennsylvania Packet and General Advertiser," begins publication.

1786: New Hampshire Militia attacks a mob surrounding the State Legislature, ending a three-day siege. The mob, armed with muskets, swords, and staves, was demanding the issuance of paper money and the equal distribution of property.

1814: Black troops cited for bravery in Battle of New Orleans.

1832: As a result of the Black Hawk War, the Sauk are forced to cede their lands in Iowa (also known as "The Black Hawk Purchase").

1886: H.G. Wells, author, futurist, and radical socialist, born, Bromley, Kent, England.

1896: The state militia is sent to Leadville, Colorado to break a miner's strike.

1904: Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce dies in his lodge at Nespelem, Wash.; agency physician lists cause of death as "a broken heart."

1909: Birth of Kwame Nkrumah, Nkroful, Ghana. A leader in African colonial liberation, the first prime minister of Ghana but be forced into exile following a coup.

1915: Stonehenge auctioned off for a rock-bottom 6,600 pounds to C.H. Chubb.

1934: Typhoon strikes Honshu Island Japan, kills 4,000.

1937: J.R.R. Tolkien's "The Hobbit" published.

1939: Polish Jews are forced into ghettos by Nazis.

1947: Birth of Stephen King.

1948: Folke Bernadotte, UN mediator, assassinated by Jewish paramilitaries, Palestine.

1956: Anastasio Somoza, Nicaraguan dictator, assassinated by Roliberto Lopez. Two hundred opposition leaders are promptly arrested. Somoza's son would assume power and continue the dictatorship with full US backing for another 23 years.

1963: War Resisters League organizes first anti-Vietnam War demonstration in US, New York City.

1972: Sixty thousand acre (nearly 1,000 square mile) McQuinn Strip in Oregon returned to Warm Springs Confederated Tribes after 85 years.

1976: Former Chilean Foreign Minister and Ambassador to the US Orlando Letelier, and his colleague Ronni Moffitt, a US citizen, are murdered in Washington D.C. by agents of US-installed Chilean President Augusto Pinochet.

1980: Two canisters containing radioactive material fall off a truck on New Jersey's Route 17. The driver of the truck discovers the cargo missing when he reaches Albany, New York.

1981: Senate confirms Sandra Day O'Conner for US Supreme Court--the first woman appointed to that position.

1982: First observance of International Day of Peace.

1989: Israeli soldiers begin a 42-day occupation and house-to-house destruction of the Palestinian town of Beit Sahour, in retaliation for its mass two-year refusal to pay taxes to the occupying Israeli government.

September 22

296: Martyrdom of St. Maurice and the 6600.

1609: Moors expelled from Spain.

1656: First all-woman American jury, Patuxent, Maryland--they acquit a woman accused of murdering her child.

1692: Last eight women hanged for witchcraft in American colonies, Salem, Massachusetts.

1779: Gewauga, a Cayuga village in upstate New York, is destroyed by Gen. Sullivan's troops. Today, coincidentally, is now "American Indian Day."

1792: New calendar adopted in revolutionary France, with ten-day weeks, three-week months, and 12-month years, starting at Year One.

1828: Shaka, African ruler and founder of the Zulu kingdom, is murdered by his half-brother Dingane after mental illness begins to compromise his leadership. Shaka was a highly successful military ruler, who completed the centralization of Zulu power, adapted the weapons and tactics of south African warfare, and set about the integration of neighboring peoples into the growing Zulu kingdom.

1857: Anita Augsburg, feminist pacifist, born, Germany.

1861: In an unprovoked peacetime attack, US Army soldiers massacre a band of visiting Navajo men, women and children during a horse race at Fort Wingate, New Mexico.

1862: Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation declares that "persons held as slaves" in areas "in rebellion against the United States" would be free as of Jan. 1, 1863. Since the areas in question were no longer under US control, not one slave actually stood to gain freedom. Lincoln's declaration was only a political/military move, threatening to "free" slaves in any states who didn't return to the Union fold, giving the South four months to stop its revolt. He promised to uphold slavery in states that rejoin the North. The principle of what is today considered a document of freedom is that you cannot own another person unless you are loyal to the US 500,000 slaves flee plantations; many others practice go-slow, sabotage, and effect a general strike, taking over plantations for themselves. Robert Smalls and other slaves take over the steamship "The Planter." 200,000 join the Union Army.

1870: Proclamation of the Republic of Puerto Rico in revolt against Spanish rule: "Gritto de Lares." Lares, Puerto Rico.

1887: Treaty #7, or Blackfoot Treaty, surrenders 50,000 square miles (slightly less than the size of the state of Washington) in Southwest Alberta.

1919: The "Great Steel Strike" begins. Ultimately, 395,000 steelworkers walk off their jobs to demand union recognition. The AFL Iron and Steel Organizing Committee call off the strike on Jan. 8, 1920--their goals unmet.

1935: Four hundred thousand US coal miners strike.

1946: Four thousand workers march in Valleyfield, Quebec, Canada to protest the arrest of Medeliene Parent, a leader of the Dominion Textile strike.

1949: First Soviet A-bomb exploded.

1962: Church Centre, donated by the world's Methodists, dedicated for the use of non-governmental organizations at UN headquarters. New York City.

1966: Eight hundred Puerto Rican men pledge to refuse US draft, "part of the colonial subjugation of our country," Lares, Puerto Rico.

1970: Fishing is prohibited in Virginia's Holston River after a chemical plant dangerously contaminates the river's fish with mercury.

1971: American Indian Movement activists attempt to arrest the deputy director of the Bureau of Indian Affairs in Washington, D.C.

1974: Special Prosecutor Leon Jaworski subpoenas Pres. Richard Nixon.

1975: In the second assassination attempt made against Pres. Gerald Ford in less than three weeks, the president is shot at in San Francisco by Sara Jane Moore, a police and FBI informer.

1980: After 10 months of skirmishes, Iran-Iraq war starts, halting 60% of world's oil traffic.

1981: West German cops oust squatters. Thousands in several cities fight back.

1996: In Australia, Robert Dent, suffering from terminal cancer, becomes the first person in the world to commit legally assisted suicide under a voluntary euthanasia law. Dent dies from a painless lethal injection.

September 23

1806: Meriweather Lewis and William Clark return to St. Louis, Missouri, from the first overland journey across North America to the Pacific Coast.

1818: Percy Bysshe Shelley's "Mask of Anarchy" is published.

1838: Birth of Victoria Woodhull, feminist and reformer. Proponent of Free Love, first woman to run for US presidency (with Frederick Douglass). Member of the First International until expelled by Karl Marx. Homer, Ohio.

1868: "El Grito de Lares" uprising against Spanish colonial government of Puerto Rico.

1900: Paris congress of the Second International is first international body to recognize Irish nationhood. England still working on it.

1916: Warren Billings, labor activist, goes on trial in San Francisco.

1939: Psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud dies. He missed his mother.

1943: Vilna Jewish ghetto is "liquidated" by Nazis.

1950: Congress overrides President Truman's veto and passes the McCarran Internal Security Act, requiring registration of members of groups the Attorney General determines to be Communist fronts, and establishing of emergency concentration camps. Truman called the act "the greatest danger to freedom of speech, press, and assembly since the Alien and Sedition Laws of 1798." Portions of the Act allowing exclusion of gays and lesbians from the US are still on the books, and enforced at the borders.

1952: Vice Presidential hopeful Richard Nixon defuses a scandal and saves his career, unfortunately, with his nationally televised "Checkers" speech.

1954: A Japanese tuna fishing boat, the Lucky Dragon, is caught in the path of fallout from a US atomic test 100 miles to the west, at Bikini Atoll. The crew members suffered from radiation sickness, and one of the them died of liver and blood damage. The Lucky Dragon incident touched several sensitive issues in Japan: the atomic legacy of World War II; disruption in the supply of fish, a principal food item; curtailment of fishing rights on the high sea; and a deep-rooted concern that the United States was insensitive to the feelings and sufferings of the Japanese people and unduly preoccupied with the development of weapons for mass destruction.

1955: Jury in Sumner, Mississippi, acquits Roy Bryant and J.W. Milam of murdering 14-year-old African American Emmett Till, visiting from Michigan, after he looked at a white woman. The two admitted kidnapping the youth. But the jury based its verdict on a claim that the slain boy's body was too decomposed for positive identification.

1957: Nine black students who had entered Little Rock Central High School in Arkansas were forced to withdraw because a white mob had formed outside.

1973: Pablo Neruda, Chilean poet, communist cultural hero, and Nobel prize winner, dies of leukemia in Santiago.

1978: Italian prisoners tear down walls to protest maximum security prisons.

1979: In the largest political protest of the late '70s in the US, six months after Three Mile Island, 200,000 attend rally against nuclear power in Battery Park, New York City.

September 24

1794: President Washington orders militia to put down Whiskey Rebellion.

1824: General Council of the Cherokee Nation passes a law making it unlawful for white men living on the Nation to have more than one wife, or to make use of her property without her consent.

1869: Black Friday, another fiscal crisis, precipitated by scumbag Jay Gould and "Jubilee Jim" Fisk. Thousands of businessmen ruined in a Wall Street panic after the two financiers attempt to corner the gold market.

1893: A civil guard is slain during a Barcelona, Spain rebellion; anarchist Pauli Pallas is executed for the crime, leading to further violence and 20 deaths in a bombing six weeks later.

1894: Birth of E. Franklin Frazier lives, Baltimore, Maryland. Noted social scientist and author of "The Negro Family in the US" and "Black Bourgeoisie." First African-American president of the American Sociological Society.

1900: Anarchist Congress begins, Holland.

1905: Four thousand of Louis A. Gantz's 7,000 sheep were shot and/or clubbed to death by cattlemen. Knowing full well that the cattle interests controlled the courts, the Basin, Wyoming herdsman did not even attempt to prosecute.

1918: Labor union, Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), declared illegal in Canada.

1924: Mohandas Gandhi begins 21-day fast for Hindu-Moslem unity, India.

1929: Author Zamiatin "resigns" under threat of expulsion from the Soviet All Russian Writers Union. Wrote "A Soviet Heretic," and sci-fi allegory "We"--a precursor to "1984."

1945: Saigon captured--workers, peasants, and the poor have set up insurrectionary communes in parts of the city.

1953: Twenty-three Korean-American prisoners of war, who have refused to be repatriated to the United States during a United Nations prisoner exchange, are turned over to India by the North Korean command. The US soldiers issue this statement: "We love our country and our people...Unfortunately, under present conditions in America, the voices of those who speak out for peace and freedom are rapidly being silenced. We do not intend to give the American government a chance of silencing our voices too."

1960: US Navy launches the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, the USS. Enterprise.

1968: Anti-war protestors destroy 10,000 draft files in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

1968: Mexican soldiers battle students at the National University in Mexico City, killing 17 and arresting at least 1,000.

1969: Beginning of the trial of the Chicago Eight, a broad conspiracy trial stemming from the 1968 Democratic National Convention protests that sought (unsuccessfully) to imprison eight of the country's leading anti-war protest organizers: David Dellinger, Rennie Davis, Thomas Hayden, Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin, John Froines, Lee Weiner, and Bobby Seale.

1981: CIA Director William Casey urges "total exclusion from Freedom of Information Act for intelligence agencies."

1985: Wojciech Jankowski resists military conscription; later jailed for three years. Gdansk, Poland.

1988: James Brown is arrested in Augusta, Georgia after leading police on a hour-long, two-state car chase. Claimed he fled because he feared for his life.

1991: American children's anarchist writer, Dr. Seuss, dies.

1995: As part of International Buy Nothing Day, activists dressed as rats urge shoppers at a Dutch shopping mall to "leave the rat race."

1996: U.D. government signs Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

1997: UNESCO conference discusses relationship between masculinity and violence. Oslo, Norway.

September 25

1493: Christopher Columbus' second departure for New World, in search of gold, slaves, and tribute.

1513: Balboa "discovers" the Pacific Ocean, claims it for the King of Spain.

1639: First printing press in America.

1690: First newspaper published in colonial America. It was never published again. Authorities considered "Publick Occurrences Both Foreign and Domestick" to be offensive, and ordered the publisher, Benjamin Harris, to cease publishing.

1775: Colonel Ethan Allen was taken prisoner during an unsuccessful US attempt to capture Montreal, Canada.

1789: Congress passes Bill of Rights.

1818: First blood transfusion operation, London, England.

1846: Gen. Kearney and troops depart New Mexico for the conquest of California.

1861: Secretary of US Navy authorizes enlistment of slaves in Union Navy. Enlistees can achieve no rank higher than "boys" and receive pay of one ration per day and $10 per month. This authorization has never been rescinded.

1867: Leo Tolstoy, Russian novelist and mystical anarchist, visits the battlefield of Borodino to visualize the scene 55 years before.

1925: International convention against forced labor and slavery signed, Geneva, Switzerland.

1932: Catalonia becomes "autonomous" region of Spain.

1937: City of Los Angeles, California bans sale of war toys.

1952: Birth of Cherrie Moraga, Latina feminist writer.

1957: After state troopers had prevented integration in high school, Pres. Eisenhower dispatches 11,000 Army troops and federalizes the Arkansas National Guard to enforce court-ordered desegregation and escort nine black schoolchildren to class in Central High School, Little Rock, Arkansas. White segregationists and the state militia are kept at bay by over 1000 paratroopers. The army remains for the entire school term.

1964: Two hundred protest Vietnam War at Democratic National Convention.

1970: Erich Maria Remarque dies. German author, wrote anti-war novel "All Quiet On The Western Front."

1975: US Senate makes public 238 illegal FBI burglaries against dissident groups. These actions become known as COINTELPRO, an acronym for counter-intelligence-programs.

1977: Steve Biko, South African civil rights activist, buried after being beat to death in jail by cops.

1993: A Florida judge rules it is legal for a child to divorce biological parents. The court case involved 12-year old Gregory Kingsley who didn't want his parents anymore.

1996: Stone-throwing protests by thousands of Palestinians angered by Israel's decision to open an archaeological tunnel near Jerusalem's Al Aqsa Mosque compound lead to Palestinian police battling with Israeli troops. Seven people die and more than 350 are wounded.

September 26

1680: Tax revolt in Gorinchem due to tax on cereal.

1687: Parthenon destroyed in war between Turks and Venetians.

1786: Shay's Rebellion begins, Springfield Armory, Massachusetts. Against the authority of the central government newly installed.

1874: Ronald Mackenzie's cavalrymen round up 2,000 Indian ponies in the Palo Duro Canyon and shot each of them. Mounted soldiers then conduct the horses' former owners on a 200-mile forced march to Fort Sill, Oklahoma.

1893: Birth of Freda Kirchevey, feminist and editor at The Nation.

1932: Gandhi ends fast against separate electorate for untouchables, British India.

1937: Bessie Smith dies of injuries from an auto accident outside of a Jim Crow hospital in Mississippi when the ambulance refuses to hurry because she is black. Dies in Clarksville, Miss. One of the nation's greatest blues singers, called "the Empress of the Blues."

1954: Typhoon strikes Kakodate Bay Japan, killing over 1,600.

1959: Highlander Folk School in eastern Tennessee raided and closed down.

1960: Longest speech in UN history (4 hrs, 29 mins, by Fidel Castro).

1969: Chicago Seven trial, of anti-war activists for protests at 1968 Democratic National Convention, begins.

1990: Mohawk warriors at Kahnawake and Kanesatake (Oka), Quebec, surrender after an 11 week standoff with Canadian police and soldier over occupation of sacred land slated to be used for a new municipal golf course.

1992: A group of radical bicyclists in San Francisco get together to hold a "Commuter Clot" mass riding protest. The monthly event is soon renamed Critical Mass.

2000: IMF/World Bank meetings in Prague disrupted by thousands of protesters.

September 27

1290: An earthquake is responsible for the death of approximately 100,000 in Chihli, China.

1821: Revolutionary forces occupy Mexico City as Spanish withdraw.

1875: Striking textile workers demand bread for starving children in Fall River, Massachusetts.

1909: International Ladies' Garment Workers Union strike against Union Triangle Shirtwaist begins. Would become the "Uprising of the 20,000," in which 339 of 352 firms struck reached agreements with the union over the next five months. Triangle was not one of them.

1934: First International Congress of Women Against War and Fascism.

1940: Pres. Franklin Roosevelt meets with A. Philip Randolph, president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; Walter White, executive secretary NAACP; and T. Arnold Hill, acting secretary of the National Urban League, to discuss employment discrimination, particularly desegregation of the armed forces. Army: 5,000 Negroes out of 269,023; Navy: 4,000 out of 160,997--employed as mess boys and laborers.

1944: The first large-scale plutonium producing reactor begins operation on land seized from the Yakama Indian Nation, Hanford, Washington.

1950: Answering machine is invented.

1954: US Senate committee calls for censure of Joe McCarthy.

1957: Despite international protests, U.K. begins nuclear bomb test series on aboriginal land, Maralinga, South Australia.

1960: Sylvia Pankhurst, leader of East London Federation which sought to unite British labor and woman's suffrage movement, dies.

1962: Everyman III sails for Leningrad from Gravesend, England.

1972: First section of Trans-Amazon Hwy., running through traditional native homelands in Brazil, is opened for traffic. Loggers, miners, tourists, disease, death, and other consequences of automobiles follow.

1983: Five members of Puget Sound Women's Peace Camp enter Boeing's Cruise missile production plant in Seattle, leaflet workers, and are arrested.

1990: Last US Pershing II missiles removed from Germany, less than ten years after their installation provoked a massive anti-nuclear movement across Europe.

1991: Pres. Bush decides to end full-time B-52 bombers alert.

September 28

551 BC: Confucius born, China.

1704: Maryland allows divorce if wife displeases clergyman/preacher.

1785: Birth of David Walker, abolitionist who wrote the famous, "Walker's Appeal," Wilmington, N.C.

1812: On the southern front in the War of 1812, Creek and Seminole warriors battle a contingent of 250 Georgia volunteers.

1820: Birth of Friedrich Engels.

1829: David Walker issues, on his birthday, his publication, "An Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World, but in Particular and Very Expressly to those of the United States of America." The south will put a price on his head for such endearments as urging slaves to rise up and "Slit their oppressors' throats from ear to ear."

1841: Roman Catholic priest Blanchet states that Fr. Demers won over entire village of souls from the Methodists, near Willamette Falls, Oregon.

1850: US Navy abolishes flogging on Navy and merchant marine vessels.

1864: Founding of the International Workingman's Association, first Communist International, London, England.

1887: Huang Ho River in China floods, kills about 1.5 million.

1904: A woman arrested for smoking a cigarette in an open car on 5th Avenue.

1912: "Kiche Maru" sinks off Japan, killing 1,000.

1917: 165 Wobblies (Industrial Workers of the World union members) indicted for protesting World War I. The first move in an illegal but successful US government campaign to cripple the radical union movement.

1938: Victor Jara, singer of freedom, born, Chile.

1943: Danish underground anti-Nazi activists begin systematic smuggling of Jews to Sweden.

1966: Dozens of anti-war demonstrators disrupt address of Vice President Humphrey at Olympic Hotel in Seattle.

1966: National Guard quells riots in Hunter's Point and Fillmore neighborhoods of San Francisco.

1969: West Germany: first (postwar) Socialists take power (Willy Brandt and Social Democrats in coalition with Free Democrats).

1970: Death of John Dos Passos, radical American novelist.

1971: Chilean government expropriates Anaconda and Kennecott copper mines.

1972: The Secretary of the Army repeals the dishonorable discharges of 167 Brownsville (Texas) Raid soldiers. The soldiers, members of the 25th Infantry who were involved in a riot with the city's police and merchants, were dishonorably discharged by Pres. Theodore Roosevelt without a trial.

1973: New York: A bomb devastates part of the Latin American section of the ITT building, in retaliation for ITT's involvement (along with CIA) in the bloody overthrow of Chile's former President Allende one week previous.

1981: Director and assistant of research lab in Maryland convicted on 15 counts of cruelty to animals.

1991: American jazz great Miles Davis, 65, dies from pneumonia, Santa Monica, California.

1994: Top PRI political leader Ruiz Massieu assassinated in Mexico.

1994: Indigenous people from around the globe meet in Bolivia to discuss bio-piracy.

1998: First Queeruption festival draws hundreds of anarcho-queers to London, England.

2000: Ariel Sharon visits site of Temple Mount's Dome of the Rock, leading to a new and bloody intifada, Sharon's election as Prime Minister, and a brutal new cycle of Middle East violence.

September 29

1642: Missionary Rene Goupil killed by Mohawks, on whom he was spying for the French military.

1795: Perpetual Peace published by Immanuel Kant, Germany.

1879: A dozen Ute Indians kill all the white workers at Colorado's White River Agency. The dead include agency head Nathan Meeker, who said it was his duty as a member of a superior race to elevate and enlighten the Utes. When thy did not bow to Meeker's wishes to change them from hunters to farmers, he called in the Army. On this day, the white troops attacked a peaceful party of Utes along the Milk River--even after their chief, Nicaagat, frantically attempted to avert the confrontation by riding out to meet them. The attack prompted the Ute killings at Meeker's agency. Before the fighting ends, 37 Utes die in a desperate stand to save their reservation from military seizure.

1883: English language publication of anarchist Johann Most's song "The Hymn of the Proletariat."

1906: Troops sent to Cuba to "protect US interests."

1921: The Cheka (Bolshevik Secret Police) execute ten anarchists, including Fanya Baron and poet Lev Cherny. Emma Goldman, friend and fellow anarchist, was so outraged that friends had to dissuade her from chaining herself to a bench in the hall where the Third International was meeting to shout her protests to the delegates.

1931: RCMP fire into coal miners' parade, murdering three. Biendfait, Saskatchewan, Canada; 400 miners and their families clash with police during strike, Estevan, Saskatchewan (same incident, or two separate situations?).

1941: Nazi death squad kills 30,000 Jews at Babi Yar, outside Kiev, Ukraine, USS.R.

1969: The Army's case against Green Beret Colonel Robert Rheault and others for "terminating with extreme prejudice" the life of an alleged Vietnamese double agent was dropped when the CIA refused to allow its agents to testify.

1969: Two thousand welfare protesters take over the state capitol building in Madison, Wisconsin.

1979: Two hundred thousand participate in anti-nuke demonstrations, lower Manhattan, California and 11 other locations around the US.

1982: US Marines land in Lebanon as part of multinational force.

1983: Stop the City protests against military-financial complex, London, Britain.

1983: International arms trade convention prematurely closed by nonviolent activists. Brussels, Belgium.

1984: Protesters crash the 40th birthday celebration of the World Bank and IMF.

1988: Cartoonist Charles Addams dies.

1988: Eighty thousand in West Berlin protest IMF policies, 400 arrested.

1988: Veteran's Peace Convoy wins lawsuit banning Executive Branch from regulating or prohibiting aid to a foreign country intended to relieve suffering.

1989: Two thousand openly smoke pot during U.C.-Berkeley campus "smoke-in."

1994: Protesters once again crash the Washington, D.C. 50th birthday party of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund.

2001: An estimated 20,000 rally in Washington, D.C., against the prospect of military strikes as part of Pres. Bush's new "War on Terrorism." Smaller rallies and marches are held around the country.

2002: A London crowd estimated at 200,000 to 500,000 protests British and US plans for a "preemptive" (that is, without provocation) invasion of Iraq.

September 30

1542: First book is published, Johann Guttenberg's Bible. Rejected by several publishers. Great opening; ending is kinda weak.

1630: John Billington is the first criminal to be executed in the US Hanged for murder in Plymouth, Massachusetts.

1765: Mexican Independence fighter Jose Maria Morelos born, Valladolid.

1838: Mushalatubbee, Choctaw chief, dies of smallpox.

1864: In a series of battles around Chaffin's Farm near Richmond, Virginia, black troops capture Confederate entrenchments at New Market Heights, make a gallant but unsuccessful assault on Fort Gilmer, and help repulse counterattacks on Fort Harrison. These battles garner Congressional Medals of Honor for 13 black soldiers. During the Civil War, 185,000 blacks serve in the Union Army, fighting in 449 battles. One out of every four Union sailors is black. Almost 38,000 black soldiers die.

1885: Knights of Labor win on Wabash Railroad.

1949: Berlin Airlift ends after 277,000 flights.

1962: After deployment of 12,000 federal troops to quell segregationist violence, troops escort James Meredith as he--on his fourth try--becomes the first African-American student to register at that bastion of enlightenment, the University of Mississippi.

1970: Presidential Commission on Obscenity and Pornography report concludes all sexually explicit films, books, and magazines aimed at adults should be legalized. A publisher adds 500 photos to the report and sells it for twice the Government Printing Office's price. The publisher is arrested for "pandering to prurience," fined $87,000 and sentenced to four years in prison.

1970: Fourteen hundred draft cards burned by protestors in Puerto Rico.

1972: "Operation Readiness" report on the Air Force's C-5A transport plane reveals numerous defects, including malfunctioning landing gear and engines that fell off wings.

1976: Congress passes Hyde amendment, which prevents Medicaid reimbursements for abortions.

1985: US federal government shuts down (thru Oct 3). However, no one notices--much less cares. Crime rate dropped, no wars waged, no graft, wind speed drops, several forests temporarily spared.

1986: Mordechai Vanunu kidnapped by Israeli secret police in Rome. Vanunu, who leaked details of Israel's secret nuclear weapons program to the London Times, was convicted in a secret Israeli military court and held in solitary confinement in Israeli prisons for the next 10 years.

1991: CIA finances military coup in Haiti, overthrowing the democratically elected government of Rev. Jean-Bertrand Aristide. Three years of state-sponsored murder, rape and theft follow.

1998: Death penalty for treason and piracy abolished, Britain.